The product yield from a chemical reaction can be changed by manipulating operating variables, such as temperature, pressure, and the relative amounts of reactants present. In this document we consider the effects of feeding one reactant in excess of its stoichiometric amount. We derive an expression for the amount of excess reactant to feed to a reactor and we give a sample calculation.
This document summarizes the notation and basic operations of linear algebra. Topics include addition and multiplication of matrices, multiplication of vectors, multiplication of a vector and a matrix, finding determinants, testing whether a matrix is singular, and using linear algebra to solve systems of linear equations.
In this document we illustrate how molecular interactions affect macroscopic properties of fluids. We do so by showing how fluid properties respond to systematic changes in molecular structure. For example, why do heats of vaporization of n-alkanes increase as we extend the chain length? (No, not because the molecular weights increase.) We also show that, although an ideal solution in equilibrium with an ideal gas obeys Raoult's law, the converse is not true: a mixture that obeys Raoult's law is not necessarily an ideal solution.